The 23-year-old American, who escaped a doping ban earlier this month on a technicality, crossed the finish line in a personal best of 9.76 seconds to claim his first major outdoor championship gold medal.
The 37-year-old defending champion Justin Gatlin took silver in 9.89 seconds while Canada’s Andre De Grasse claimed bronze in 9.90.
It completed a flawless championship campaign for Coleman, who had been the only man to duck under 10 seconds in both Friday’s opening rounds and Saturday’s semi-finals.
Coleman’s win in perfect conditions at the Khalifa Stadium was never in doubt, as he exploded out of the blocks to take the lead over the opening 20 metres.
The American let out a roar of triumph as he crossed the line before punching the air in jubilation after a performance which makes him the sixth-fastest man in history.
“I am humble, I am just here to win titles,” an elated Coleman said afterwards.
“It is an incredible time, it is a PR for me. I think the sky’s the limit, I think I still have a lot of things I can work on and improve, I think I can keep dropping my time.”
The victory was the culmination of a rollercoaster season for Coleman, whose participation in the championships had been in doubt until only three weeks ago.
Coleman, who has strongly denied ever using performance-enhancing drugs, was left facing a lengthy suspension in August after it emerged he had registered three drug-testing “whereabouts” failures in a 12-month period.
The violation is regarded as equivalent to a failed drug test and often followed by a ban of up to two years.
Yet Coleman avoided a sanction when the case against him was dropped in early September because of a technicality.
He had recorded his first whereabouts failure on June 6 last year, before two more offences in January 16 and April 26 this year.
However the United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) abruptly withdrew the charges on September 2 after a review of the rules regarding how the 12-month window should be calculated.
Coleman, who has previously criticised USADA for bringing the case against him, again protested his innocence following Saturday’s win. “I did nothing wrong. To me I’m just a young black man living my dream.” (AFP)